If you were to tweet: "justice is fair" no one would dispute your tweet. Similarly, you could tweet "bravery is admired" and no one would dispute it.
But if you tweet, "he was very courageous to stand up to the vice president the way he did" someone might reply, "not courageous, but idiotic." And here is where we begin to deviate - in the application of some preconceptions.
Epictetus mentions religions and how they dispute what ought to be eaten or not eaten. He also mentions a couple of main characters from The Iliad who argue over justice. At the heart of it all, is where you put "the good" - where you place happiness and contentment in you mind. Do you derive happiness and contentment from your body, property, parents, siblings, children, country and friends? Aren't all those good things? Most would say, "yes! absolutely!" But if you place your whole happiness and contentment in things that are out of your control, you must constantly deal with sorrow and discontent.
Furthermore, some people will even place these externals in the domain of "coming from God."
God gives me a healthy body: I am blessed! God gives my body cancer: I am cursed!
God gives me riches and land and a beautiful home: I am blessed! God sends a drought and famine and my riches and land and home are lost: I am cursed!
God gives me wonderful parents and a family: I am blessed! God causes my family to die and hate me: I am cursed!
God sends me to the richest, most powerful country in the world: I am blessed! God allows another country to invade and conquer my country: I am cursed!
God gives me countless, kind friends: I am blessed! God causes all my friends to leave me: I am cursed!
Truly ask yourself, do you need a functioning, healthy body to be happy? Do you need property, land, riches, parents, brothers and sisters, children, a country and friends to be happy and content? Most people say yes! But the reality is that these things do not bring you happiness.
What are we to do with stories like these:
Stephen Hawking or Helen Keller (people who's bodies did not function well for them).
Eric Hoffer (who was never really rich and labored with his hands most of his life).
Countless other people who's stories are never told, but they are never rich, yet seemingly are always happy.
Myth or not, what about Job - how was he able to be content and happy when everything was taken from him?
Do we not admire people who've had property, health and family taken from them, yet they are still able to find happiness and contentment?
Ultimately, all these things are externals to our will. Our mind - our attitude - how we view the world is based on what we decide to assent to (or agree with). If we place all our hopes and dreams in externals, then we must accept and expect that our happiness and contentment will be out of our control.
And do you want to be in control of your happiness or would you rather roll the dice and see what happens?
If you want to be in control of your happiness, then focus on what is in your control: your attitude. But if you want to take your chances, then pick something that is out of your control and let your emotions and attitude and state of mind depend on whatever happens to it. Good luck!
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