Monday, May 21, 2018

Epictetus Discourses Book 2 Chapter 23 - the greatest gift

Indeed, we have been given many gifts: speech, writing, sight, hearing.  We should not "be ungrateful for these gifts, but at the same time, [we should not] forget that there are others superior to them" (verse 5).  The greatest gift is "the faculty of using impressions" (verse 7).  This gift is also known as "the will" - our ability to choose and perceive and form opinions.

"Only the will is discerning enough to look after [the other gifts], in proportion to value, and supervise itself at the same time" (verse 11).  We may be gifted in speech and writing, but choosing how to employ those gifts - that is a better, even the best gift.  Learning to use the will in the best way, is the ultimate goal or objective.

Now, this does not mean we should abandon our other gifts.  We must take great care of our other faculties, but not at the risk of abandoning our best gift.  "Simply put - ignore it (the will) and unhappiness results, give it your attention and your happiness is assured" (verse 29).

And learning how to use the will is the ultimate objective.  "Your objective, my friend, was to see to it that you make natural use of whatever impressions come your way; that you do not fail in your desires, or have experiences you don't want; that you never be unfortunate or unhappy, but free, unrestricted and unrestrained; in sympathy with God's rule, which you submit cheerfully; at odds with no one, no one's accuser; able in all sincerity to speak Cleanthes' line: 'lead me, Zeus, lead me, Destiny.' (verse 42)

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